Bartolme de las Casas Protests the Treatment of Native People

Now this infinite multitude of Men are by the Creation of God innocently simple, altogether void of and averse to all manner of Craft, Subtlety and Malice, and most Obedient and Loyal Subjects to their Native Sovereigns; and behave themselves very patiently, submissively and quietly towards the Spaniards, to whom they are subservient and subject; so that finally they live without the least thirst after revenge, laying aside all litigiousness, Commotion and hatred…

The natives are capable of Morality or Goodness and very apt to receive the principles of Catholic Religion; nor are they averse to Civility and good Manners…, I myself have heard the Spaniards themselves (who dare not assume the Confidence to deny the good Nature in them) declare, that there was nothing wanting in them for the acquisition of eternal grace, but the sole Knowledge and Understanding of the Deity….

The Spaniards first assaulted the innocent Sheep, so qualified by the Almighty, like most cruel tigers, wolves, and lions, hunger-starved, studying nothing, for the space of Forty Years, after their first landing, but the Massacre of these Wretches, whom they have so inhumanely and barbarously butchered and harassed with several kinds of Torments, never before known, or heard (of which you shall have some account in the following Discourse) that of Three Millions of Persons, which lived in Hispaniola itself, there is at present but the inconsiderable remnant of scarce Three Hundred. Nay the Isle of Cuba, which extends as far, as Valladolid in Spain is distant from Rome, lies now uncultivated, like a Desert, and entombed in its own Ruins. You may also find the Isles of St. John, and Jamaica, both large and fruitful places, unpeopled and desolate. The Lucayan Islands on the North Side, adjacent to Hispaniola and Cuba, which are Sixty in number, or thereabout, together with those, vulgarly known by the name of the Gigantic Isles, and others, the most infertile whereof, exceeds the Royal Garden of Seville in fruitfulness, a most Healthful and pleasant Climate, is now laid waste and uninhabited; and whereas, when the Spaniards first arrived here, about Five Hundred Thousand Men dwelt in it, they are now cut off, some by slaughter, and others ravished away by Force and Violence, to work in the Mines of Hispaniola, which was destitute of Native Inhabitants: For a certain Vessel, sailing to this Isle, to the end, that the Harvest being over (some good Christian, moved with Piety and Pity, undertook this dangerous Voyage, to convert Souls to Christianity) the remaining gleanings might be gathered up, there were only found Eleven Persons, which I saw with my own Eyes. There are other Islands Thirty in number, and upward bordering upon the Isle of St. John, totally unpeopled; all which are above Two Thousand miles in length, and yet remain without Inhabitants, Native, or People.

As to the firm land, we are certainly satisfied, and assured, that the Spaniards by their barbarous and execrable Actions have absolutely depopulated Ten Kingdoms, of greater extent than all Spain, together with the Kingdoms of Aragon and Portugal, that is to say, above One Thousand Miles, which now lye waste and desolate, and are absolutely ruined, when as formerly no other Country whatsoever was more populous. Nay we dare boldly affirm, that during the Forty Years space, wherein they exercised their sanguinary and detestable Tyranny in these Regions, above Twelve Millions (computing Men, Women, and Children) have undeservedly perished; nor do I conceive that I should deviate from the Truth by saying that above Fifty Millions in all paid their last Debt to Nature.

Those that arrived at these Islands from the remotest parts of Spain, and who pride themselves in the Name of Christians, steered Two courses principally, in order to the Extirpation, and Exterminating of this People from the face of the Earth. The first whereof was raising an unjust, bloody, cruel War. The other, by putting them to death, who hitherto, thirsted after their Liberty, or designed (which the most Potent, Strenuous and Magnanimous Spirits intended) to recover their pristine Freedom, and shake off the Shackles of so injurious a Captivity: For they being taken off in War, none but Women and Children were permitted to enjoy the benefit of that Country-Air…

Now the ultimate end and scope that incited the Spaniards to endeavor the Extirpation and Desolation of this People, was Gold only…

Finally, in one word, their Ambition and Avarice, than which the heart of Man never entertained greater, and the vast Wealth of those Regions; the Humility and Patience of the Inhabitants (which made their approach to these Lands more easy) did much promote the business: Whom they so despicably contemned, that they treated them (I speak of things which I was an Eye Witness of, without the least fallacy) not as Beasts, which I cordially wished they would, but as the most abject dung and filth of the Earth; and so solicitous they were of their Life and Soul, that the above-mentioned number of People died without understanding the true Faith or Sacraments. And this also is as really true that the _Spaniards_ never received any injury from the Indians, but that they rather reverenced them as Persons descended from Heaven, until that they were compelled to take up Arms, provoked thereunto by repeated Injuries, violent Torments, and unjust Butcheries.

Bartolomé de Las Casas, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. For Columbus Day

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7 Responses

    1. This is the “one word”:
      “their Ambition and Avarice, than which the heart of Man never entertained greater, and the vast Wealth of those Regions; the Humility and Patience of the Inhabitants (which made their approach to these Lands more easy) did much promote the business: Whom they so despicably contemned, that they treated them (I speak of things which I was an Eye Witness of, without the least fallacy) not as Beasts, which I cordially wished they would, but as the most abject dung and filth of the Earth; and so solicitous they were of their Life and Soul, that the above-mentioned number of People died without understanding the true Faith or Sacraments. And this also is as really true that the _Spaniards_ never received any injury from the Indians, but that they rather reverenced them as Persons descended from Heaven, until that they were compelled to take up Arms, provoked thereunto by repeated Injuries, violent Torments, and unjust Butcheries.”

      Do you even know your rhetorical figures? “One word” is one such figure and refers to a summary, a sort of a tl;dr in the past.

  1. I read a very interesting report on Aztec beliefs and customs years ago. You could say they were living by some Christian ideals before ever encountering Europeans. Luke 12:48b: “Much will be demanded of a person to whom much has been given, and even more will be asked of a person to whom more has been entrusted.”
    Aztecs lived by this rule very rigorously. If visibly drunk in public, a peasant would be lashed, but an official would be executed.

    Human sacrifice to sun god was common, but there’s a misconception (or slander) that Aztecs made war raids to get a constant procession of captured prisoner sacrifices.
    The idea of the sacrifice was that the sun god needed to be appeased so that sun would rise again. Thing is, Aztecs saw this sacrifice as a highest honor and a sign of worthiness and the best warriors would readily volunteer themselves for sacrifice.

    As soon as Aztecs heard of Christ and how he made one sacrifice to end blood sacrifices of Old Testament, many Aztecs would convert on the spot, intimately understanding the intrinsic worth of a sacrifice made by the Son of God.

    The slander was very useful to conquistadors motivated by greed who would argue that Aztecs were savages who were unworthy of their humanity and who needed to be eliminated.

    If only there were more people like Bartolme de las Casas, more empathy and less greed among Spanish explorers, they might have been able to annex most of Mesoamerica and many areas further south without firing a single shot or killing a single Native (well, until smallpox and measles did a number on them).

    1. Yahoo wrote: “As soon as Aztecs heard of Christ and how he made one sacrifice to end blood sacrifices of Old Testament, many Aztecs would convert on the spot”

      Nonsense. The truth is far more typical of other religions conversions of conquered and subjugated peoples: they weren’t given a choice.

      “The most important of these idols, and the ones in whom they have the most faith, I had taken from their places and thrown down the steps.” – Hernan Cortes, letter to the Spanish Crown, 1520.

      – joel

      1. @joel

        I’ve been to Mexico many times, and I can assure anybody who cares that this isn’t how they tell the story in Mexico. At the church of the version of Guadalupe – the old one, not the new one – there are murals showing happy kneaders wearing white robes joyfully converting to the new religion. It is so much BS.

      2. This is what missionaries recounted when they met Aztecs and lived among them **BEFORE** conquistadors came to loot the natives.
        Conquistadors nullified the work of missionaries.

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